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经济学人精读笔记1

loading_hlb 2020-02-17 11:51:00 阅读数:164 评论数:0 点赞数:0 收藏数:0

The Chinese coronavirus.



2020/2/17

Part 1

The Chinese coronavirus.
Time and again. A new virus is spreading.

Fortunately, the world is better prepared than ever to stop it

As The Economist went to press, over 600 cases had been confirmed in six countries, of which 17 were fatal. The new virus is a close relative of sars (severe acute respiratory syndrome), which emerged in China in 2002 and terrorised the world for over half a year before burning out. sars afflicted more than 8,000 people and killed about 800, leaving in its wake $30bn-100bn of damage from disrupted trade and travel.

中国冠状病毒
再次爆发
一种新的病毒肆意蔓延

幸运的是,我们比以往任何时候准备得都更充分,可以遏制它
截至本期《经济学人》付印之时,已有6个国家确诊600多例,其中死亡17例。这种新病毒是2002年中国出现的sars(严重急性呼吸系统综合症)的近亲,在全球肆虐了半年多后才销声匿迹。sars感染者8000多人,死亡约800人,贸易和旅游中断造成300亿至1000亿美元的损失。

  • time and (time) again 一次又一次;一再;屡屡;总是
    You will get a perfect result time after time if you follow these instructions.如果你遵循这些用法说明,每次都会得到最佳的效果。

  • go to press 付印,交付印刷Meanwhile, the editor was getting impatient, for the magazine would soon go to press. 与此同时, 编辑等的不耐烦了, 因为杂志很快就要付印.

press做名词指“报章杂志;报刊;印刷媒体”比如:the local/national/foreign press地方 / 全国 / 外国报刊
the freedom of the Press/press freedom新闻自由

而the press则指“记者;新闻工作者” A meeting was promised, but the Press was not admitted. 承诺将召开一次会议,但是不允许记者到场。

【类似表达】记者还可以是correspondent和 journalist

  • fatal [ˈfeɪtl] adj. causing or ending in death 致命的

a fatal accident/blow/illness 致命的事故 / 一击 / 疾病
In the vast majority of cases the disease is fatal.这种疾病绝大多数病例都是致命的。

fatality [fəˈtæləti] [可数名词] a death that is caused in an accident or a war, or by violence or disease (事故、战争、疾病等中的)死亡
Several people were injured, but there were no fatalities. 有几个人受伤,但没有人死亡。

【类似表达】mortal adj.[ˈmɔ:tl] 导致死亡的;致命的;非常危急的
a mortal blow/wound 致命的一击 / 伤口

mortality n.[mɔ:ˈtæləti] 死亡数量;死亡率
the infant mortality rate婴儿死亡率

【近义词辨析】deadly, fatal, mortal, lethal这些形容词均表示“致命的”意思。
*deadly指能致命或实际已致命的事物,也可指企图致死他人的人。The cobra is one of the world's deadliest snakes.眼镜蛇是世界上毒性最剧烈的蛇类之一。

*fatal正式用词,强调死亡的不可避免性,多用于指伤或疾病等。A hospital spokesman said she had suffered a fatal heart attack.医院发言人说她死于心脏病发作。

*mortal语气强,指导致死亡的直接原因。 He received a mortal wound soon after the battle began.战争开始后不久,他就受到了致命的重伤。

*lethal 指由于某物本身具有致命的性能。a lethal dose of sleeping pills剂量足以致命的安眠药

  • close relative 近亲 relative n.家属,亲属

【类似表达】kin n.(统称)家属,亲戚,亲属
next of kin n.直系亲属;最近亲
kindred n.1.(统称)家人,亲属 2.亲属关系;血缘关系 a kindred spirit/soul 志同道合的人;志趣相投的人

inbreeding n.近亲繁殖;同系交配

  • acute adj.(疾病)急性的 acute appendicitis急性阑尾炎

【反义词】chronic adj.慢性的;难以治愈(或根除)
chronic bronchitis/arthritis/asthma 慢性支气管炎 / 关节炎 / 哮喘

【词根词缀】ac, acr, acid = sour(酸的)sharp(锐利的)
acuity n.尖锐;剧烈;敏锐
acute adj.敏锐的;尖锐的;剧烈的;急性的
acumen n.敏锐;尖锐
acupuncture n.针灸,针剌疗法 (acu尖锐的+ punct刺/扎+ure名词后缀)
acme n.顶峰,顶点;鼎盛期
acrid adj.(气味等)刺激的;辛辣的;(言语等)尖刻的,讥讽的

  • respiratory syndrome 呼吸系统综合症

respire是动词“呼吸”相当于breathe,respiratory则为形容词“呼吸的”,比如:
the respiratory system呼吸系统
respiratory diseases呼吸道疾病

syndrome n.a set of physical conditions that show you have a particular disease or medical problem 综合征;综合症状

【词根词缀】sym-,syn-表示“共同,相同”
sympathy n同情(sym+pathy 感情)
symphony n交响乐(sym+phony 声音→许多乐器一起发声)
symmetry n对称(sym+metry 测量→两边测量一样→对称)
synchronous adj同时的(syn+chron 时间+ous→共同时间的)
synonym n同义词(syn+onym 名字→名字相同→同义词)
syndrome n综合症状(syn+drome 跑→跑到一起→综合症)

  • burn out 熄灭
    The fire had burnt (itself) out before the fire engines arrived. 救火车到达之前火就熄灭了。

  • afflict v.[əˈflɪkt]既可以表示(疾病)折磨,也可以表示(问题)严重或长期影响。

  • in one’s wake = in the wake of sb/sth 随...之后而来;跟随在...后

【外刊高频/写作推荐】
The company is in bankruptcy proceedings in the wake of a strike that began last spring. 去年春天开始的罢工一结束,这家公司就进入了破产程序。

我们知道wake up是 “醒一醒,清醒点”的意思,在口语中wake up还有另一种意思“活跃起来to become more lively and interested”比如:Wake up and listen! 打起精神注意听!

wake up to sthto become aware of sth; to realize sth 意识到;认识到
He hasn't yet woken up to the seriousness of the situation. 他还没有认识到形势的严重性。

(我们可以在写作中用wake up to sth 代替be aware of sth, realize sth)【写作推荐】

  • emerge vi. 出现; 显出; 暴露
  • terrorised 惊恐的

  • 【长难句分析】SARS afflicted more than 8,000 people and killed about 800, leaving in its wake $30bn-100bn of damage from disrupted trade and travel.
    句子主干:SARS主语+ afflicted 谓语动词+more than 8,000 people and killed about 800宾语+ leaving…现在分词引导的结果状语从句
    leaving在这句话当中作现在分词,引导的是结果状语,即由前半句“感染死亡”这件事造成的结果。原结构为leave sth in its wake,in its wake是作宾语补足语。因为宾语部分较长,所以把补足语in its wake提前来避免头重脚轻。

Part 2

That toll would have been lower if the Chinese authorities had not hushed up the outbreak for months. But things are very different this time. The Chinese have been forthcoming and swift to act. Doctors in Wuhan, the metropolis where it began, havecome in for criticism, but the signs are that they promptly sounded an alarm about an unusual clusterof cases of pneumonia—thereby following a standard protocol for spotting new viruses.

如果z-f当年没有隐瞒疫情数月,死亡人数也许会更少。但这次情况大不相同。中国积极并迅速采取行动。在疫情爆发的大都市武汉,医生们受到了批评,但有迹象表明,他们发现这一系列不同寻常的肺炎病例并迅速拉响了警报,遵循了“发现新病毒”后应执行的标准程序。

  • toll [təʊl] n. (战争、灾难等造成的)毁坏;伤亡人数,相当于上文讲到过的的“mortality”

The official death toll has now reached 7 000 官方公布的死亡人数现已达 7 000 人。the war's growing casualty toll 不断增长的战争伤亡人数

  • toll 还有一个高频意思“(道路、桥梁的)通行费”,高速公路收费站的ETC快速通道的全称就是 Electronic Toll Collection,指电子道路收费系统。

关于toll还有一个很重要的表达take a heavy toll on sth/ take its toll on sth,相当于have a very bad effect on sth,比如多年的吸烟习惯已对他的健康造成了严重的影响:Years of smoking have taken their toll on his health.

再比如经常搬家影响了孩子的成绩,我们可以说Frequent move took a toll on children's performance.

  • hush本身是个语气词,用于要求或命令别人安静,就是我们平常说的“嘘” 比如Hush, my love, it's all right. 嘘,宝贝,没事了。

那么hush up 就像是“比出嘘的手势”,表示“掩盖,蒙蔽(事实)”to hide information about a situation because you do not want people to know about it

He claimed that the whole affair had been hushed up by the council. 他声称整个事件都被市政会一手捂住了。

  • downplay 意为“对某事轻描淡写,轻视”,比如:武汉官方一开始低估了这种新型病毒,直到政府发布公告称已有医务人员被感染,人们这才重视起来。Officials in Wuhan initially downplayed the new virus, but that changed just before the government said that health workers had been infected.

  • outbreak [‘autbreik] n. the sudden start of sth unpleasant, especially violence or a disease(暴力、疾病等坏事的)爆发,突然发生

the outbreak of war 战争的爆发

an outbreak of typhoid 伤寒的爆发

  • forthcoming ,upcoming 和prospective都可以表示“即将到来的,即将发生的”

Her letter may purport her forthcoming arrival. 她的来信可能意味着她快要到了.

  • swift [swɪft] adj.moving very quickly; able to move very quickly 速度快的

With a swift movement, Matthew Jerrold sat upright. 马修· 杰罗尔德迅速坐直了。

  • metropolis [mɪˈtrɒpəlɪs]n.A metropolis is the largest, busiest, and most important city in a country or region. 大都会,大城市

The city has become a huge, bustling metropolis. 这座城市已变成繁忙的大都市。(bustling [ˈbʌslɪŋ] adj. a bustling place is very busy〔地方〕繁忙的,热闹的bustling with sb/sthThe flower market was bustling with shoppers.花市里熙熙攘攘,挤满了顾客。)

- come in for sth
to receive sth, especially sth unpleasant 遭到;受到

The government's economic policies have come in for a lot of criticism.政府的经济政策遭到了很多批评。

  • sound an alarm 拉响警报

  • cluster [‘klʌstə] n. A cluster of people or things is a small group of them close together.(人或物的)组,群,簇

clusters of men in formal clothes.一群群身着正装的男人

- spot
尤其指突然发现或注意到,比如 I've just spotted a mistake on the front cover. 我刚才在封面上发现了一处错误。

  • promptly adv. 敏捷地;迅速地;立即地

-protocol (外交条约的)草案,草约;(尤指)议定的条款,议定书

Part 3

The WHO has long worried about the possible emergence of a “disease x” that could become a serious international pandemic and which has no known counter-measures . Some experts say the virus found in China could be a threat of this kind. And there will be many others. Further illnesses will follow the same well-trodden path, by mutating from bugs that live in animals into ones that can infect people. Better vigilance in places where humans and animals mingle , as they do in markets across Asia, would help catch viral newcomers early. A tougher task is dissuading people from eating wild animals and convincing them to handle livestock with care, using masks and gloves when butchering meat and fish, for example. Such measures might have prevented the new coronavirus from ever making headlines.

世界卫生组织长期以来一直担心可能出现一种“x型疾病”, 该疾病可能成为一种严重的国际流行病,而且尚无已知的应对措施。一些专家表示,在中国发现的病毒可能就是这样一种威胁。而且还会有更多其他病毒出现的可能。更多的疾病将会遵循同样的常见路径,通过动物体内的细菌变异成可以感染人类的细菌。在人和动物混杂的地方应提高警惕,就像他们在亚洲市场所做的那样,将有助于早期发现新病毒。一项更艰巨的任务是劝阻人们不要食用野生动物,并说服他们谨慎对待牲畜,例如在屠宰肉和鱼时要戴口罩和手套。这些措施本可以防止新型冠状病毒登上新闻头条。

  • pandemic n. [pænˈdemɪk]a disease that spreads over a whole country or the whole world (全国或全球性)流行病;大流行病

【类似表达】epidemic n.[ˌepɪˈdemɪk] 流行病

the outbreak of a flu epidemic 流感的爆发

  • counter-measure 对策;对抗手段;反措施

Because the threat never developed, we didn't need to take any real countermeasures. 威胁从未加剧,因此我们没有必要真采取什么对策。

  • follow the same well-trodden path

走老路,用老办法【写作推荐】

  • trod 是动词“踩,踏”,
    well-trodden 就是形容词“经常被踩过的”,
    well-trodden path/road/ground 很多人走过的路,也就是“惯常途径,惯常方法”

These working parties will be going over well-trodden ground. 这些工作组将按惯例工作。

-mutate v.to develop or make sth develop a new form or structure, because of a genetic change (使)变异,突变

the ability of the virus to mutate into new forms 病毒变异成新菌株的能力

  • mutation n.变异 genetic mutations 基因变异

【长难句分析】Better vigilance in places where humans and animals mingle, as they do in markets across Asia, would help catch viral newcomers early.

*句子主干:Better vigilance 主语+ would help catch谓语动词+ viral newcomers宾语

*better vigilance 直译为“更高的警觉性”,这里需要运用翻译技巧中的“词性转换”,把名词翻译为动词“提高警觉性” (enhancing/improving vigilance)。

*as they do in markets across Asia在句子中作插入语,they do代指前面的humans and animals mingle。

  • vigilance [‘vidʒiləns] n. careful attention that you give to what is happening, so that you will notice any danger or illegal activity警惕,警戒

  • vigilant [‘vidʒilənt] adj. 警觉的;警惕的;警戒的;谨慎=alert, watchful

a pilot must remain vigilant at all times. 飞行员必须随时保持警惕。

  • mingle [ˈmɪŋ.gl] v.

1.使混合;使联结 The sounds of laughter and singing mingled in the evening air. 笑声和歌声交织在夜空中。

2.(尤指在社交场所)相交往,混杂其中The princess was not recognized and mingled freely with the crowds. 公主没有人认出,随意混杂在人群之中。

  • persuade/dissuade people from doing sth. [ˈmɪŋ.gl] 说服/劝阻某人做某事

convince sb to do sth. 说服某人做某事(注意介词的搭配)

[纽约时报.It’s Mosquito Season. Here’s How to Prepare]We try to dissuade people from using a topical Benadryl cream because of the risk of sensitivity or reaction. 我们会尽量建议大家不要使用目前的苯海拉明(Benadryl)软膏,因为有过敏或其他反应的风险。

  • mask 是“面具,口罩”,还可以用respirator表示“口罩”

  • butcher 作动词“屠杀,宰杀”

Pigs were butchered, hams were hung to dry from the ceiling. 杀了猪,猪腿挂在天花板上风干。作名词则是“屠夫,刽子手”

  • make headlines 上新闻头条

【类似表达】grab(the)headlines/hit the headlines

  • livestock n. 家畜, 牲畜
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