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英语连读及发音

tolman 2020-02-22 01:16:50 阅读数:83 评论数:0 点赞数:0 收藏数:0

常见发音现象

连读–辅音+元音

当前一个单词以辅音结尾,后一个单词以元音开头,将前面的辅音与后面的元音自然相连,称为“辅音 + 元音”的连读。我们可以想象这个辅音是后一个单词的词首,自然流畅地将辅音与元音连起来读。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中“辅音 + 元音”连读。
On it.
I found it.
Check it out.
Game over!
Can I fit this?
pick up on things
Do I speak it?
It’s a good job offer.
You know what a God is?
当前一个单词以字母以-r或-re结尾,后一个单词以元音开头时,使用辅音/r/把前后两个单词中的元音连接起来。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中“/r/ + 元音”连读。
Here I am.
Where am I?
Han, you’re on your own.
This is all right here in the box.
You’re old. You’re probably 60.
Number eight, you’re enchanting.
注意:
1)单词连读发生变音时,听起来可能会像其他单词,但大多数误解是可以直接排除或在语境中可以消除。
例如下面这句话中的number eight连读后可能听起来像number rate,但在语境中我们可以排除number rate。
Number eight, you’re enchanting.
2)有许多英语口音(如英国南部口音),词尾字母 -r或 -re不发音,如car /kɑ:/,more /mɔ:/,other /'ʌðə/,pure /pjʊə/,number /ˈnʌmbə/,因此这类单词是以元音结尾。在许多其他英语口音中(如苏格兰口音、爱尔兰口音以及北美大部分地区的口音),以 -r或 -re结尾的单词一般在结尾发/r/音,如:car /kɑ:r/,more /mɔ:r/等。但只要单词组合符合以上规律则自然地产生连读。
下面录音中的your为英式发音,尾音/r/不发音,但在句子中与其后的元音连读。听录音,对比他们的区别。
your
The fight will be your own.
I’ll whisper it in your ear.
3)有时,当前一个单词以/ɑ:/、/ɔ:/、/ɜ:/、/ə/、/ɪə/、/ɛə/或/ʊə/等元音结尾,后一个单词以元音开头时,尽管前一个单词的拼写中不含 -r或 -re,发音时仍会添加/r/音以防止间断。
听录音,仔细辨别划线单词之间添加的/r/音。
Henry saw in him perhaps the only prince.
I saw another Jayden, not the one I saw at home.
连读–辅音+以“h”开头的单词

当前一个单词以辅音结尾,后一个单词以字母h开头(如he、his、her、him、here等),在这种情况下字母h可以不发音,直接将前面的辅音与h后面的元音自然相连,称为“辅音 + 以h开头单词”的连读。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中“辅音 + 以h开头单词”连读。
him
Call him.
Get him!
house
safe house
he
If he did?
his
Open his cage.
take his place
her
Keep her.
here
I slept here.
have常常可以弱读/həv/,或将/h/省略,弱读为/v/或/əv/。should、could、would与have也分别连读作/ʃʊdə/、/kʊdə/、/wʊdə/。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中should、could、would与have的连读。
Could have?
I could have used you.
You should have seen me.
I would have hated any theme.
注意:/h/音的省略出现在很多英语口音和方言中,如美语、威尔士英语、苏格兰英语、通用澳大利亚英语、牙买加英语等。但有学者认为省略/h/音是对英语掌握不佳、缺乏教育的体现。我们不一定要按照这种规则发音,但我们需要具备在语境中理解/h/音省略的认知。
连读–辅音+半元音

当前一个单词以辅音/t/、/d/、/s/、/z/结尾,后一个单词以半元音/j/开头,这些辅音可以与/j/连读,且产生音变。
听录音,仔细听录音中“辅音 + 半元音/j/”连读。
/t/ + /j/ = /tʃ/
Got you.
I let you in!
Not your own?
/d/+/j/=/dʒ/
Did you?
And your father?
I need your help!
注意:do you也可连读为/dʒu:/。

/s/+/j/=/ʃ/
God bless you.
Relax your legs.
I’m gonna miss you.
/z/+/j/=/ʒ/
Same as you.
Close your eyes.
How was your day?

连读–辅音+辅音

前后为相同辅音(爆破音除外)
当前一个单词以辅音结尾,后一个单词以相同的辅音开头时,发音时只发一个拖长的辅音。(当相同的辅音为爆破音的情况在”失爆“章节中学习)
听录音,仔细辨别录音中相同辅音的连读。
I’m Max.
Film me!
Time magazine.
Yes sir.
Makes sense.
She wants to go to the American Dance Studio…
Safe flight.
Not dead enough for me.
I crave victory.
What’s passive voice?
前后为相同的爆破音
爆破音:/p/-/b/,/t/-/d/,/k/-/g/
当前一个单词以爆破音结尾,后一个单词以相同的爆破音开头时,前一个爆破音只需做好发音口形、形成阻碍,但不爆破出来,稍微停顿后即发出后面的辅音。这种情况下,前一个爆破音就“失去爆破”了。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中相同爆破音的失去爆破。
Not today.
Get to work.
Take care.
It’s the classic case:
Keep pedaling, you two!
If you don’t stop prying.
Bad dog.
Good day.
Yeah, he got into the cab behind me and he’s…
I don’t think you’ve ever seen my lab before.
The a big green patch.
And who’s this big galoot?

  1. 发音部位相近的辅音

当一个单词以辅音结尾,后一个单词以发音部位相近的辅音开头时,前一个辅音做好发音口形、形成阻碍,发出轻微的声音,有时声音微弱到听不出来,立即过渡到后一个辅音;也有人为了更省力好读,直接省略前一个辅音。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中发音部位相近的辅音的连读。
Have fun.
(/v/-/f/)
I love flowers.
(/v/-/f/)
Let’s save five children.
(/v/-/f/)
Let’s see.
(/ts/-/s/)
He’s sick.
(/z/-/s/)
I have not thought this through.
(/s/-/θ/)
And, this seals those sheets of pasta together.
(/s/-/θ/)

连读–元音+元音

当前一个单词以/u:/、/aʊ/、/əʊ/结尾,后面的单词以元音开头,则在中间加/w/来连接两个元音。这个发音规则在单词内部同样适用。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中“元音 + /w/ + 元音”的连读。
heroic
/hɪˈrowɪk/
intuition
/ˌɪntuˈwɪʃən/
fluent
/ˈflu:wənt/
Go on.
/ɡəʊ wɒn/
Do it.
/ˈdu:ˌwɪt/
You are?
/jʊ wɑː/
Who else?
/huː wels/
I knew it.
/njuː wɪ/
How is she?
/haʊ wɪ/
How do I look?
/ˈdu:ˌwaɪ/
Not to us.
/tuː wʌs/
当前面的单词以元音/i:/、/aɪ/、/eɪ/、/ɔɪ/结尾,后面的单词以元音开头,则在中间加/j/来连接两个元音。这个发音规则在单词内部同样适用。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中“元音 + /j/ + 元音”的连读。
idea
/aɪˈdi:jə/
science
/ˈsaɪjəns/
react
/riˈjækt/
Say it.
/seɪ jɪ/
My own.
/maɪ jəʊn/
May I see it?
/siːjɪ/
He is? Why?
/hiː jɪz/
He can be out?
/biː jaʊt/
失爆

前后为不同爆破音
爆破音:/p/-/b/,/t/-/d/,/k/-/g/
当前一个单词以爆破音结尾,后一个单词以另一个爆破音开头时,前一个爆破音只需做好发音口形、形成阻碍,但不爆破出来,稍微停顿后即发出后面的辅音。这种情况下,前一个爆破音就“失去爆破”了。
Sit down.
Get down!
My hot dog!
You’re a great dad.
You lied to us.
I need to rest.
Glad to hear it.
I said keep back!
Stop being happy!
I couldn’t stop but think:
But she might stop by later.
Thank God.
You look good.
Economic growth matters.
Get back, get down.
Most yogurt doesn’t burn!
Big commitment.
So it don’t look like a drug crime!
爆破音+摩擦音/破擦音
爆破音:/p/-/b/,/t/-/d/,/k/-/g/
摩擦音:/f/-/v/,/s/-/z/,/θ/-/ð/,/ʃ/-/ʒ/,/h/-/r/
破擦音:/ts/-/dz/,/tr/-/dr/,/ tʃ/-/ dʒ/
当一个爆破音的后面紧跟着一个摩擦音或破擦音,前面的爆破音只需好发音口形、形成阻碍,发出轻微的声音,有时甚至听不出来,立即过渡到后面的摩擦音或破擦音。这种情况下,前一个爆破音发生了“不完全爆破”。
Not real?
Music room.
It doesn’t hurt.
It does look fun.
Took that from me.
Not that shocked.
But the pack survives.
Oh, thank God for that.
Oh, that is so thoughtful.
This says platform 9 3/4.
What does NBC stand for?
I forget the third thing.
What stupid thing did you do?
Great choice.
I shot Chuck.
You like jazz?
Not just yet.
It just triggered some uh…
爆破音+鼻辅音/舌侧音
爆破音:/p/-/b/,/t/-/d/,/k/-/g/
鼻辅音: /m/,/n/,/ŋ/
舌侧音:/l/
当爆破音后面紧跟着鼻音/m/、/n/和舌侧音/l/时,爆破音/d/、/t/同样只做好发音口形、形成阻碍,发出轻微的声音,有时甚至听不出来,立即过渡到后面的音。这种情况下,前一个爆破音发生了“不完全爆破”。
Oatmeal.
Good morning.
He got me back.
Big commitment.
But now…
So, what next?
Shoot. Shoot now.
We need to find land fast!
a lot less.
Not long ago,
Not like this.
One week left.
You look lost, pal.
/t/在/n/、/l/前失爆
在一些地方口音中,当/t/位于/n/或/l/前面时,/t/不送气,气流受阻,然后发出后面的/n/或/l/。
Milk carton?
It’s written!
certainly has
Constantly.
Little Miss Sunshine.
Definitely not like that.
/t/、/d/的省略

当/t/、/d/位于句尾时,/t/、/d/可以省略,在美式口音和英式口音中有此种发音现象。
Do it.
Just do it!
Don’t shoot!
Don’t do that.
Don’t do it.
Just sit tight.
Like that?
It’s wet and cold.
You sold my husband?
…that’s just stupid.
To infinity and beyond!
Doesn’t sound that bad.
Just stop for a second.
当/t/位于/n/的后面时,/t/可以省略,此种发音现象在美式口音中常见。
Job interviews.
interaction over a short distance.
I took it down… off the Internet.
international language of love
浊化

“浊化”其实是一个争议较多的概念,我们中文所说的“浊化”实际指英文中的“flap/tap sound(闪音)”。但我们无需纠结这个概念本身,我们关注更多的是这种发音现象。flap sound与其他的发音现象一样,也是为了让发音变得更好听、省力。美语中的flap sound有:/t/、/p/、/k/和/tr/,而英语中则没有这种发音现象,这也是区分美音和英音的方式之一。/t/、/p/、/k/和/tr/四个音为清辅音,送气顺畅,不受阻塞。当它们产生浊化时则送气受阻,发出接近于它们相对的浊辅音/d/、/b/、/g/和/dr/。
当/s/后面的音为/t/、/p/、/k/和/tr/,且为重读音节时,/t/、/p/、/k/和/tr/产生“浊化”。
清辅音/s/也是一个送气音,当两个送气的清辅音放在一起读时会很费劲,感觉一直在吐气。为了省力好读,/s/后的清辅音/t/、/p/、/k/和/tr/需要“浊化”,不送气。
虽然发生了“浊化”,发音改变了,但音标的书写方式没有改变,我们在拼读的时候尤其要注意。比如spider,虽然我们发音时读作/'sbaɪdə/,但书写时音标仍应写为/'spaɪdə/。由于在英语中我们也不可能找出含有sb-、sd-、sg-和sdr-这些组合的单词,所以我们也不会将spider误听作sbider(这个单词不存在)。
/s/+/p/
This means to postpone it.
I mean, spices are so small.
I’d like to speak to Sheldon.
/s/+/tr/
It’s strange.
Oh, I was starstruck.
The struggle’s so real.
/s/+/k/
But describe him.
There’s a big black sky over my town.
What did you learn in school today?
/s/+/t/
Stabilized.
Seven, stockings!
Star it. Write it down.
美式口音中,当/t/、/p/位于两个元音之间时,且为非重读音节,/t/、/p/产生“浊化”。
(美音中/t/音的“浊化”大大促进了英语流畅、放松的发音,/d/音是非常平滑的音,/t/音需要更多的体力,/d/发音时肌肉无需太紧张。美音中的/p/也可以“浊化”成/b/,但都没有/t/的“浊化”常见。)
I separated you.
Am I British?
Keep writing.
And sky and cities.
Huangsha market is open 24/7 and…
Luckily, this doesn’t happen very often.
I’m just happy I’m keeping it down, you know?

缩略式及后缀的发音

缩约式-'s、-'re和-'ll

缩约式是非正式口语中常见的表达方式。代词和助动词经常合到一起,构成缩约词。例如代词I和助动词am通常合到一起,构成I’m。代词与助动词构成是否可以构成缩约也与这两个单词在句子中是否为信息词,是否重读有关。

句子It’s a beautiful day! 中,最重要的单词是beautiful、day,因为他们传达了重要信息,需要重读。单词is不重读,因此我们使用其缩略形式It’s。但是在句子Yes, it is! 中,单词yes、is是最重要的信息词,需要重读,这种情况下我们使用其完全式,而不用缩约形式。

在句子They’re here! 中,最重要的单词是here,here要重读;They’re在这个句子中不重要,因此采用其缩约式,读作/ðɛər/或/ðə/。但是在句子They are! 中,单词are是最重要的单词,我们使用其完全式,而不用缩约形式。
缩约式-’s通常用于表示is或has,较少用于表示does。-’s所表示的单词可结合句子和语境来判断,不会引起困惑。-’s的发音为/z/。he’s可读作/hi:z/、/hiz/或/iz/;she’s可读作/ʃi:z/或/ʃiz/。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中is的缩略形式。
-’s表示is时有以下三种情况:
1)-’s表示实义动词is。
It’s a boy.
But that’s not the case.
What’s a payphone?
It’s not the same when there’s no future.
Here’s the intriguing part.
Where’s that pizza place again?
She’s not insane. She’s my mother.
2)-’s表示助动词is,构成现在进行时is doing。
Ugh, it’s updating.
She’s not feeling too good.
He’s not dying. He’s just unconscious.
3)-’s表示助动词is,构成一般将来时is going to do/is gonna do。
I know what’s gonna drive us apart…
He’s gonna give our business a real bump.

听录音,仔细辨别录音中has的缩略形式。

It’s been pretty amazing.
He’s never been to war. He’s only led you in training.
All right. She’s gone.
缩约式-’re表示are。we’re读作/wɪr/;you’re读作/jɔ:r/、/jər/或/jə/;they’re读作/ðɛər/或/ðə/。
we’re
you’re
they’re

听录音,仔细辨别录音中are的缩略形式。
-’re表示are时有以下三种情况:
1)-’re表示实义动词are。
once or twice before we’re done.
You’re right. You’re right.
They’re lifeless and dry,
2)-’re表示助动词are,构成现在进行时are doing。

We’re playing chutes and ladders.
Sir, you’re taking this all wrong.
They’re figuring this out
3)-’re表示助动词are,构成一般将来时are going to do/are gonna do。

We’re gonna use a frying pan.
That’s all you’re gonna get.
They’re going to kill us all.
注意:
They’re与their或there发音相同,容易混淆,但结合语法和语义可以区分,不会混淆。例如下面这个句子,我们可以直接通过语法和语义排除Their/There never gonna leave us alone again.这两种可能,确定此处为They’re。
They’re never gonna leave us alone again.
缩约式-’ll表示助动词will,用于构成一般将来时will do。缩约式-’ll读作/l/,发/l/时用舌尖抵住上齿后面的口腔顶部,气流从舌头两侧通过,声带振动。
I’ll take it in.
You’ll see.
We’ll play nice.
She’ll do it, you’ll do it, Max.
He’ll be here soon. He’ll explain.
It’ll be okay. We’ll find the money.
注意:
在句尾不能使用缩约形式(否定缩约式-n’t除外)。
Do you know where dad is?(错误:Do you know where dad’s?)
I wonder where they are?(错误:I wonder where they’re.)
I’m sure he will. (错误:I’m sure he’ll.)

缩约式-'ve和-'d

缩约式是非正式口语中常见的表达方式。代词和助动词经常合到一起,构成缩约词。

例如代词I和助动词have通常合到一起,构成I’ve。代词与助动词构成是否可以构成缩约也与这两个单词在句子中是否为信息词,是否重读有关。

例如句子I’ve been to twenty countries. 中,最重要的单词是been、twenty、countries,因为他们传达了重要信息,需要重读。单词have在句中是用于构成现在完成时态的助动词,不需要重读,因此我们可以将I have 缩略为I’ve。

但是在句子Yes, I have. 中,单词yes、have是重要的信息词,需要重读,这种情况下则不能使用其使用缩约式,必须使用完全式。
缩约式-’ve只表示have。-’ve可读作/əv/、/v/或/ə/。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中have的缩略形式。
-’ve表示have有以下三种情况:
a)-’ve表示实义动词have(有),或表示助动词have来构成have got(有)或have got to do(不得不做)。
I’ve got it.
We’ve got water.
You’ve got to be kidding.
We’ve got to go get him.
b)-’ve表示助动词have,构成现在完成时have done或现在完成进行时have been doing。
We’ve failed.
You’ve made it.
I’ve been doing this a long time.
I’ve been hiding all my hopes and dreams away.
c)-’ve表示助动词have,构成虚拟语气should/would/could have done。
I should’ve done it.
You could’ve called her.
Sophie, we would’ve taken that.
缩约式-’d可表示had、did或would。-’d所表示的单词可结合句子和语境来判断,不会引起困惑。缩约式-'d在句中有时发生失爆或省音,需要结合语义和语境来判断。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中had的缩略形式。
-’d表示助动词had,构成过去完成时had done,或短语had better。
When I realized I’d done it,
I was so happy that they’d done that.
I’d better be going.
You’d better have a couple of days in bed.

听录音,仔细辨别录音中did的缩略形式。
How’d you know that?
What’d you do?

听录音,仔细辨别录音中would的缩略形式。
-’d可表示情态动词would,或构成短语would like/love(喜欢、想要)或would rather(宁愿) 。

It’d be one amazing place to live.
I’d like you to embrace it.
I’d love to put my ax in her face.
I’d rather not.
Besides, I think she’d rather go with somebody else.
注意:
在句尾不能使用缩约形式(否定缩约式-n’t除外)。
I’m sure we have. (错误:I’m sure we’ve.)
He said he did. (错误:He said he’d.)

否定缩约式

缩约式是非正式口语中常见的说话方式。例如句子I don’t like cake. 中,重要的单词是don’t、like、cake,因为他们传达了重要信息,需要重读。

否定式缩约不同于其他形式的缩约,-’s、-’re、-’ll、-’ve、-’d等使用缩约形式是因为他们不是重要的单词,因此也不需要重读。而否定缩约所提供的信息在句中至关重要,即使是缩约形式仍重读。
否定缩约式有:
is not = isn’t
was not = wasn’t
are not = aren’t
were not = weren’t
do not = don’t
does not = doesn’t
did not = didn’t
have not = haven’t
has not = hasn’t
had not = hadn’t
will not = won’t
would not = wouldn’t
can not = can’t
could not = couldn’t
shall not = shan’t
should not = shouldn’t
might not = mightn’t
must not = mustn’t
听录音,仔细辨别录音中的否定缩约式。

Isn’t that funny?
It wasn’t me.
Then why aren’t we listed?
Grandma, you weren’t invited.
I don’t know.
He doesn’t understand.
I didn’t tell you.
I haven’t seen you since high school.
I can’t believe Penny hasn’t.
I hadn’t heard. Martin is in.
I won’t be long.
Heck, I don’t know why you wouldn’t.
You can’t defeat me.
He couldn’t say it.
Unlike Solzhenitsyn, I shan’t be alone.
Why shouldn’t we?
He can’t die. He mustn’t die.
注意:
1)在口语中,代词与be动词的缩约式使用频率很高,比be动词的否定缩约式的使用频率更高。
She’s not a student. 高于 She isn’t a student.
He’s not here. 高于 He isn’t here.
We’re not home. 高于 We aren’t home.
They’re not English. 高于 They aren’t English.

2)在句尾不能使用缩约形式(否定缩约式-n’t除外)。
I’m sure he will. (错误:I’m sure he’ll.)
I’m sure he has. (错误:I’m sure he’s.)
I’m sure he can’t. (正确)

过去式后缀

英语中动词过去式的变化有规则变化和不规则变化。
规则动词过去式的变化规则如下:
1)一般动词,结尾加ed
look-looked,learn-learned

2)以-e结尾的动词,结尾加d
dance-danced,use-used

3)以“辅音字母+y”结尾的动词,变y为i,再加ed
study-studied,carry-carried

4)以重读闭音节结尾、末尾只有一个辅音字母(w、x、y除外)的动词,双写辅音字母,再加ed
skip-skipped,plan-planned

5)以字母-l,且为非重读闭音节结尾的动词,可双写l(英式)或可不双写l(美式),再加ed
travel-travelled/ traveled,label-labelled/ labeled

6)以-ic结尾的动词,变-ic为-ck,再加ed
panic-panicked
规则动词过去式均以-ed结尾,它们的发音符合以下发音规则:清念/t/ ,元浊/d/ ; /t//d/之后念/id/。
1)清念 /t/,即-ed在清辅音后面念/t/。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中动词过去式结尾-ed(/t/)的发音。
finished
/ˈfɪnɪʃt/
You’ve finished most of the lesson.
helped
/helpt/
Because I’ve used it myself before and it helped me so much.

passed
/pɑ:st/
Correct, you’ve all passed the magic test.

2)元浊 /d/ ,即-ed在元音、浊辅音后面念/d/。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中动词过去式结尾-ed(/d/)的发音。
borrowed
/ˈbɒrəʊd/
We’ve only borrowed it for today.
enjoyed
/ɪnˈdʒɔɪd/
Mostly I’ve just enjoyed everything I’ve been doing.
called
/kɔːld/
You could’ve called her.

3)/t/、/d/之后念/ɪd/,即-ed在/t/、 /d/音后面念/ɪd/。
听录音,仔细辨别录音中动词过去式结尾-ed(/ɪd/)的发音。
wanted
/ˈwɒntɪd/
I know you’ve wanted a flu shot.
needed
/niːdɪd/
We thought you needed something blue.
注意:
有时候可能会出现词尾-ed的发音听不清。这种情况是因为在它后面的单词是以辅音音素开头,-ed出现了失爆的现象。
Okay, we’ve passed the weight of the steel.
Early on, I’ve discovered I needed principles.

缩略词

在非正式的书面语和口语中,常常会出现下面这样的缩略词。学会这些单词的缩约形式能够帮助我们提高听力理解能力,也能使我们的口语表达更地道。
常见的一个单词的缩略词:
about = ’bout
around = ’round
of = o’
them = ’em
because = ‘cause/ ’cos/ ’coz
doing = doin’(以-ing结尾的单词可以将其缩略为-in’,发音位置也从/-ɪŋ/前移变为/-ɪn/)

听录音,仔细辨别录音中缩略词。

How 'bout the Rec Room?
Waiting 'round the bend,
Feed 'em.
'Cause you’ve got a friend in me.
I’m sad ‘cos it’s cold.
How ya doin’?
常见的两个单词构成的缩略词:
going to = gonna
want to = wanna
out of = outta
got to = gotta
sort of = sorta
kind of = kinda
have to = hafta
give me = gimme
let me = lemme
lot of = lotta
could have = coulda
should have = shoulda
catch you = catcha
got you = gotcha
don’t you = dontcha/don’tcha
let you = letcha
don’t know = dunno
you all = y’all
come on = c’mon
it is = ’tis
it was = ’twas
it will = ’twill
it would = ’twould
am not/ are not/ is not /have not/ has not = ain’t

听录音,仔细辨别录音中缩略词。

I’m gonna cry.
You wanna go?
I’m outta here.
Then I’ve gotta go.
I just sorta forgot.
Kinda busy right now.
I hafta do it today.
Yep, just gimme like five minutes.
Lemme have a look.
A lotta rain.
Coulda gone better.
I shoulda done it.
Read a freek book why dontcha!
Ah, I gotcha!
I dunno if I wanna do it.
But yeah, y’all look gorgeous.
C’mon baby.
'Tis they who empower my verse.
This ain’t that.
三个单词构成的缩略词
在口语中人们为了说话省力,有时也将三个单词缩略。我们不一定要用这种方式讲话,但是我们要在对方使用缩略后能够识别、听懂说话内容。

could not have = couldn’t’ve
would not have = wouldn’t’ve
should not have = shouldn’t’ve
ought not have = oughtn’t’ve
he would have = he’d’ve (she’d’ve, we’d’ve…)
it was not = ’twasn’t
it will not = ’twon’t
it would not = ’twouldn’t
what are you/ what do you/ what have you/ what you = whatcha

版权声明
本文为[tolman]所创,转载请带上原文链接,感谢
https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000021807407